Global Compendium of Weeds
Helleborus orientalis (Ranunculaceae)
Presented here is summary information about the species Helleborus orientalis from the Global Compendium of Weeds, and citations of references to this species as a weed. Definitions of terms are available in the GCW introduction . For further information--or to report corrections or concerns--contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Synonyms/other Latin names: [ see GRIN ]
Status(es) (compiled for below "Data sources"): agricultural weed, casual alien, cultivation escape, garden thug, naturalised [for definitions, see the GCW introduction .]
Origin (native to where): [no info]
Check-list of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly - 1994 C.N. French and R.J. Murphy. University of Exeter (naturalised)
Clement, E.J. and Foster, M.C. (1994) Alien plants of the British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London. (garden thug)
Colin C. Ogle (last revision May 2003). Adventive plants collected in the Wanganui Conservancy of the New Zealand Department of Conservation, 1988-present. (Unpublished working list). Author's address: 22 Forres St, Wanganui, New Zealand. Email: email@example.com (naturalised)
Essl, F. & Rabitsch, W. (eds.) (2002). Neobiota in Österreich. Umweltbundesamt GmbH, Wien. (casual alien, cultivation escape)
Hill, M., Baker, R., Broad, G., Chandler, P.J., Copp, G.H., Ellis, J., Jones, D., Hoyland, C., Laing, I., Longshaw, M., Moore, N., Parrott, D., Pearman, D., Preston, C., Smith, R.M. and Waters, R.(2005). Audit of non-native species in England. English Nature Research Reports N° 662, English Nature. (cultivation escape, naturalised)
Introduced (Naturalised) Species to the United States [USDA, NRCS 1999. The PLANTS database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. ] (naturalised)
Mennan.ve ark (1999). Weed species in Hazelnut orchards in Blacksea region of Turkey. Karadeniz Bölgesi findik bahçelerinde görülen yabanco ot türleri. (agricultural weed)
Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. and Dines, T.D. (2002) New Atlas of the British & Irish Flora. An Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. Oxford University Press. (naturalised)
References: This Excel database comprises all species listed in five New Zealand Journal of Botany (NZJBot) supplements to the adventive plants listed in Flora of NZ Vol. 4 (Webb et al. 1988), namely Heenan et al. (1998, 1999, 2002, 2004) and Webb et al. (1995). In the following database, Webb et al. (1988) is cited as ""FNZ4"" followed by a page number. To reduce space, the four NZJBot papers are identified simply by the volume number, followed by the page number in which the reference occurs. - Heenan, P.B.; Breitweiser, I.; Glenny, D.S.; de Lange, P.J.; Brownsey, P.J. 1998: Checklist of dicotyledons, and pteridophytes naturalised or casual in New Zealand: additional records 1994-1996. NZJBot.36: 155-162.; Heenan, P.B.; de Lange, P.J.; Cameron, E.K.; Champion, P.D. 2002: Checklist of dicotyledons, gymnosperms, and pteridophytes naturalised or casual in New Zealand: additional records 1999-2000. NZJBot.40: 155-174.; Heenan, P.B.; de Lange, P.J.; Cameron, E.K.; Ogle, C.C.; Champion, P.D. 2004: Checklist of dicotyledons, gymnosperms, and pteridophytes naturalised or casual in New Zealand: additional records 2001-2003. NZJBot.42: 797-814.; Heenan, P.B.; de Lange, P.J.; Glenny, D.S.; Breitweiser, I.; Brownsey, P.J.; Ogle, C.C. 1999: Checklist of dicotyledons and pteridophytes naturalised or casual in New Zealand: additional records 1997-1998. NZJBot.37: 629-642.; Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.; Garnock-Jones, P.J.;1988: Flora of New Zealand Volume IV - Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. Botany Division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch, New Zealand. 1365p.; Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.; Garnock-Jones, P.J.; Brownsey, P.J. 1995: Checklist of dicotyledons, gymnosperms, and pteridophytes naturalised or casual in New Zealand: additional records 1988-1993. NZJBot.33: 151-182. (naturalised)
These taxa where indicated as neophytes to the Swiss Flora. (Red list of the endangered fern and flowering plants of Switzerland 2002.) (naturalised)
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GCW species list
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This page was created on 13 September 2007 by PT, and was last updated on
04 October 2007
by PT based on data from Rod Randall's Global Compendium of Weeds database dated 24 January 2007.