Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Alpinia zerumbet
(Pers.) B.L.Burtt & R.M.Sm., Zingiberaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))
Accept (based on second screen), score 5 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Other Latin names:  Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yan shan jiang

English: light galangal, pink porcelain lily, pink porcelain-lily, shell flower, shell ginger

Maori (Cook Islands): kaopu‘i, kaopui, Kōpī ‘enua

Samoan: teuila

Tongan: teuila

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Plant 2.0-4.5 m. Leaves sessile to petiolate, petiole 0-1.0cm long; blade 50-80 x 10-15 cm, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, tip acuminate, base cuneate, coriaceous, glabrous on both sides except for margin and below midrib; ligule 1 cm long, entire or bilobed, coriaceous, outer surface hairy. Inflorescence a thyrse, usually pendulous, glabrous or villose, flower-bearing part 25-45 cm long, lower rachilla 1.2-3.0 cm long, with 2-3(4) flowers, upper ones with 1 flower, without bract. Flowers pedicellate; bracteole white, tip pink, folded around the bud, glabrous, deciduous; calyx white, tip pink, tubular, 2.5 cm long, shortly 3-5-lobed and deeply split unilaterally, minutely pubescent on outer surface; corolla white, tube 2.0 cm long, lobes oblong, outer surface sparsely pubescent, margin ciliate, dorsal lobe 3.5 x 3 cm, laterals 3.0 x 1.8 cm; labellum dark yellow, involute, 4.5 x 4.0 cm, with red stripes and spots at the center, apex emarginate; staminodes linear, 0.3 cm long, with red stripes; anther 1.5 cm long; filament band-form, 1.5 cm long; stigma funnel-form, apex densely hairy; style slender, 5 cm long; epigynous glands massive, united on one side, yellow-brown, 0.4 cm long; ovary green, villose, 0.7 x 0.6 cm. Fruits capsular, red, globose to triangulate, 2.5-3.5 x 2.0-2.3 cm, distinctly costate, villose. Seeds 25-40, angular; aril white, membranous"  (Digital Flora of Taiwan).

"Robust, rhizomatous, clump-forming perennial up to 4 m high; leaves broad, lanceolate, sheathing the stems; inflorescence drooping, showy, fragrant.  Leaves: Bright green, glabrous and shining, up to 600 mm long and 200 mm wide.  Flowers: In racemes up to 400 mm long, main axis very hairy; white, waxy, pink-tinged bracteoles enfold the buds; flowers orchid-like; corolla white, lip to 40 mm, crinkled, yellow, with red and brown variegations.  Fruits: Red capsules"  (Henderson, 2001; p. 40).

Habitat/ecology:  In South Africa, "watercourses, forest margins, roadsides, urban open space in moist, warm, coastal and inland regions" (Henderson, 2001; p. 40). "In Fiji this well-known plant is cultivated or perhaps sparsely naturalized along roadsides near sea level" (Smith, 1979; pp. 214-215). In the Cook Islands, "naturalised; land, lowlands - inland valleys" (McCormack, 2006).

Propagation:  Vegetatively propagating or possibly bird dispersed seed. Aquatic dispersal is also apparently occurring along streams (Oppenheimer, 2008; p. 35).

Native range:  Eastern Asia (East Indies) (Henderson, 2001; p. 40). "New Guinea or some neighboring part of eastern Malesia, but it has long been in cultivation and now occurs in most tropical countries" (Smith, 1979; pp. 214-215).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 111)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 111)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 111)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 111)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 111)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 63)
Voucher cited: M. Takamatsu 614 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 111)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 214-215)
Voucher cited: Bierhorst F172
Perhaps sparsely naturalized
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 214-215)
Vouchers cited: DA 12360, DA 16085
Perhaps sparsely naturalized
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisé
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisé
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisé
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisé
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5247 (PAP)
Naturalisé
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2677 (PAP)
"Ornementale commune".
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisé
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5913 (PAP). "Ornementale rare".
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisé
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9247 (PAP). "Naturalisé en station ombragé".
Naturalisé
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 111)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Flynn, Tim/Lorence, David H. (2002) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: D. Lorence & T. Flynn 8468 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Naturalized on stream banks, forming scattered clumps, in lowland secondary mesic forest.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 35)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H30709 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H60718 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (pp. 38-39)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H10809 (BISH, PTBG)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 111)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 76)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 141)
Vouchers cited: Delacour s.n., Sarasin 206 (Z), Baumann 15676, MacKee 2666, Blanchon 299
Spontané
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 111)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 29)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 12)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Widely distributed at low altitudes throughout the island and the adjacent islets. ".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Reported as possibly an invasive plant in the Galápagos Islands per Charles Darwin Research Station.


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This page was created on 20 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 6 DEC 2010.