Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Aptenia cordifolia
(L.f.) Schwant., Aizoaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: baby sun rose, dew plant, heartleaf iceplant, hearts-and-flowers, red apple

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Stems: prostrate, 12-18 in (3-6 dm), nodes widely spaced, base of stems woody.  Leaf: 0.4-1.2 in (1-3 cm), petioled, cordate, minutely papillate.  Inflorescence: flower solitary, axillary; peduncle 0.25-0.6 in (8-15 mm). Flower: hypanthium 0.2 in (6-7 mm); sepals, four of unequal size ±0.2 in (5 mm), the largest flat, the others awl-shaped; petals numerous 0.2 in (3 mm), ovary inferior.  Fruit: 13-15 mm four locular capsule" (Hickman, 1993, cited in Bossard et al,, 2000; pp. 46-48).

Habitat/ecology:  "In California, red apple is found in disturbed places and on margins of coastal wetlands, usually less than 100 feet (30 m) elevation. It can tolerate some soil salinity and grows well in dryish, frost-free or almost frost free areas in full sun.  When watered, red apple overwhelms all neighboring vegetation, climbing over anything in its path."  (Bossard et al,, 2000; pp. 46-48). In New Zealand, "coastal rocky sites, sometimes in sand" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 93).

Propagation:  "It is known to spread vegetatively by rooting of branches. Seeds grow well in sandy, well drained soil and germinate at 60-65 degrees F. More information is needed on seed viability and potential for seed dispersal." (Bossard et al,, 2000; pp. 46-48).

Native range:  "Native to the eastern coastal region of the Cape Province and Kruger National Park in the Transvaal, both in South Africa" (Bossard et al,, 2000; pp. 46-48).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 11)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (pp. 96-97)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 49)
Voucher cited: T. Flynn & R. Culbertson 7110 (BISH)
Persisting in a yard waste dump site.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: MacKee 42334
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 93)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Bossard, Carla C./Randall, John M./Hoshovsky, Marc C., eds. (2000) (p. 47)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Bossard, Carla C./Randall, John M./Hoshovsky, Marc C., eds. (2000) (p. 47)

Comments:  A minor weed in New Zealand per Melanie Newfield, pers. com. Reported as possibly an invasive plant in the Galápagos Islands per Charles Darwin Research Station.

Control: 

Physical:  "Red apple can be easily removed by hand pulling.  However, because of the ability of this plant to grow roots and shoots from any node, all live shoot segments must be removed from contact with the soil to prevent resprouting.  If complete removal is not possible, mulching with the removed plant material is adequate to prevent most resprouting, but requires at least one follow-up treatment to remove resprouts"

Chemical:  "The herbicide gylphosate (as Roundup®) has been effectively used to kill related sea fig clones at label-recommended concentrations of 2 percent or higher.  The addition of 1 percent surfactant to allow penetration of the cuticle on the leaves should improve effectiveness"  (Bossard et al,, 2000; pp. 46-48).


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This page was created on 27 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 27 MAR 2009.