Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Avena sativa
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yan mai

English: oat

French: avoine byzantine, avoine cultivée

Hawaiian: ‘oka

Hindi: jai

Spanish: avena, avena común, avena roja

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Stout annuals; culms (2.5-) 4-8 (-12.5) dm tall.  Sheaths glabrous, with margins overlapping; ligule 2-5.5 mm long, obtuse, puberulent, finely erose-ciliate; blades (4-) 5-10 (-17) mm wide.  Inflorescences paniculate, 12-30 cm long, open; spikelets 2 (3)-flowered, rachilla glabrous or sparsely hirsute, not readily disarticulating above glumes and between florets; glumes usually exceeding florets, 9-11 (-13)-nerved, first glume (17-) 18-26 mm long, second glume (18-) 20-28 mm long; lemmas (12-) 14-20 mm long, glabrous to sometimes scabrous, 3-7-nerved, the nerves obscure on the indurate, yellowish brown lower part and prominent on the herbaceous upper 1/3, apex entire or very shallowly bilobed, callus naked or only sparsely bearded, awns, when ± present, on first floret, (15-) 22-35 mm long, not geniculate; palea firm, the 2 keels ciliate.  Caryopsis pale brown, ellipsoid, ca. 1 cm long, ca. 2.5 mm wide, appressed pubescent"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1500).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "sparingly naturalized in disturbed places and occasionally in open pastures, 60-1,220 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1500). In Fiji, "may be found as a non-persistent adventive" (Smith, 1979; p. 315). In New Caledonia, "se rencontre rarement à présent comme mauvaise herbe anthropophile" (MacKee, 1994; p. 56).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Presumably native to southeastern Europe or western Asia, now cultivated throughout the world" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1500).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 11)
"Introduced to the Island as fodder, or possibly grain, and recorded by N.Hermes".
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 315)
Vouchers cited: DA 2414, DA 11783.
Adventive but does not persist.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 98)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 11108 (PAP)
Naturalisé près d'un centre équestre abandonné.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 7)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1500)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1500)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1500)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: Baumann 16052
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 162)
Present status unknown.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 83)
Occasional at and above 1,500 m altitude, here a casual that will probably not persist.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 324)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 304)
"On roadsides, on railway em-bankments, and near racecourses and in farmland, occasionally in damp ground".

Comments:  Reported as possibly an invasive plant in the Galápagos Islands per Charles Darwin Research Station.


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This page was created on 20 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.