Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Bougainvillea spectabilis
Willd., Nyctaginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: putitainubyu

Chuukese: irátong

English: bougainvillea, great bougainvillea, purple bougainvillea

French: bougainvillée, bougainvillier

I-Kiribati: te akanta

Japanese: ikadakazura

Maori (Cook Islands): ‘ītāria, ‘ītāria, tāria, tiare taratara

Marshallese: ikdeelel, kõtõmãnlimpok, limpok

Nauruan: tsita, tsitta

Niuean: felila, malila

Samoan: felila

Spanish: buganvilla, veranera

Tahitian: tiare vareau

Tongan: felila

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Woody perennial vine, stems with stout spinesLeaves alternate, simple, ovate to somewhat elliptic, to ca. 10 cm long, margins entire.  Flowers in axillary clusters of threes, each flower with a purple, red, pink, or orange bract beneath, to ca. 3-4 cm long; calyx tubular with 5 lobes, to ca. 2 cm long, tube the same color as the bracts, lobes white, ca. 3 mm long; corolla absent; stamens 5-10.  Fruit an achene, elongate, 5-ribbed; seed 1." (McMullen, 1999)

Habitat/ecology:  Arid lowlands and moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Brazil (McMullen, 1999).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 45)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 29)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 72)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 29)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Pukapuka Atoll introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. spectabilis
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. glabra
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. glabra
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. glabra
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. spectabilis and var. glabra
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 72)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Murilo (Mwiriné) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 72)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 45)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 232 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 72)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 58)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 118)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 265)
Voucher cited: DA 12188
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 321-322)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 203)
Voucher cited: Moore 209
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 321-322)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 321-322)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 321-322)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
cultivated
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 37)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 15)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 321-322)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 321-322)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 321-322)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 272)
Voucher cited: Stone 4669 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 72)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 22)
Bougainvillea sp.; persisting in abandoned gardens.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 22)
Bougainvillea sp.; persisting in abandoned gardens.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 22)
Bougainvillea sp.; persisting in abandoned gardens.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Onotoa Atoll cultivated
Moul, Edwin T. (1957) (p. 13)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 72)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands   Unknown (year unknown)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 72)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 72)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 112)
Bougainvillea x buttiana Holttum & Standl. and Bougainvillea glabra Choisy
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1951) (p. 282)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 176)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 107)
Vouchers cited: Balansa s.n., Baumann 7448, MacKee 20615, MacKee 38989
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 139)
Voucher cited: CHR 169756
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 52)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9953 (BISH)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 36)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (pp. 172-174)
An ornamental plant.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 133)
Widely cultivated for ornamental purposes.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 52)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 110)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3312)
Taxon name on voucher: Bougainvillea spectabilis
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-4)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 080607-07
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 12)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 8)
Around houses.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 74)
Cultivated in gardens.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 106)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 34)
Bougainvillea sp.
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 5, 8)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 17)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 172)


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This page was created on 20 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 5 NOV 2011.