Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Carica papaya
L., Caricaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 2 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Carolinian: bweibwayúl mwel, bweibwayúl wal

Chuukese: baibai, bwebwao, bwebwao kipwae, kipau, kippwau, kipwai, kipwpwaaw, momiap, momiap, momwiyáp, pwaipwai, pwáyipwáy, pwipwai

English: jack fruit, mammey apple, melon tree, mummy apple, papaw, papaya, pawpaw

Fijian: maoli, oleti, papita, seaki, weleti, wi

French: papayer

Hawaiian: hē‘ī, mīkana, milikana, papaia

I-Kiribati: te babaia, te mwemweara, te papaw

Japanese: motukuwa, papaiya

Kapingamarangi: memeapu

Kosraean: es

Kwara‘ae: takafo

Mangarevan: ninita

Maori (Cook Islands): ninitā, nītā, vī angai puaka, vī puaka, vī puaka, vī puaka, vī puaka, vīnītā

Marshallese: kehnap, keinabbu, keinabu, keinapu, keinapu, kenabu, kinabu, kinapau

Mokilese: mamiyap

Nauruan: dababaia, dababaiya

Niuean: loku, loku fua ku, loku fua leleva, loku fua magaia

Nukuoro: mami

Palauan: babai, bóbai, bobai, ebingel

Pingelapan: kaineap

Pohnpeian: memiap, memiap lih, mohmiyap, momiap, momiyap, mommyapple

Samoan: esi, esi, esi, esi fafine, esi fafine, esi loa, esi tane, esi tane

Sonsorol: babaia

Spanish: fruta bomba, lechosa, mamón, melón de árbol, papaya, papayero

Tahitian: i‘ita

Tokelauan: ehi

Tongan: lesi, lesi fefine, lesi tangata

Tongarevan: nīnītā

Tuvaluan: esi, olesi

Ulithian: bwebwae

Woleaian: beibaay, bweibwae, bweibwai, pai wai

Yapese: babae, babay, baiwai, baiwai waiwai, waiwai

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Leaves simple, blades 1.5-6 dm wide, nearly as long, 5-9-lobed, the principal lobes pinnately lobed, petioles usually 3-10 dm long.  Staminate flowers numerous, pendulous, in long-pedunculate, branched cymes, calyx lobes deltate, 1-1.5 mm long, corolla creamy white, fleshy, the tube 1.5-2 cm long, the lobes lanceolate to oblong, 1-1.5 cm long, spreading, ovary vestigial, ca. 1 mm long; pistillate flowers 1-3 in short-pedunculate clusters, calyx lobes deltate, 5-10 mm long, corolla creamy white, fleshy, campanulate, divided nearly to base, the lobes lanceolate, ± falcate, 5-7 cm long, reflexed, stamens absent, ovary ovoid, ca. 3 cm long, stigma ca. 1 cm long, irregularly branched; perfect flowers similar to pistillate ones but in slightly more delicate clusters.  Fruit yellow, orange, or red, ± streaked with green at maturity, extremely variable in size and shape, 5-50 cm long, ca. 20 cm wide, pericarp yellow or orange, sweet and juicy.  (Wagner et al, 1999; p. 497).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "extensively cultivated and persisting at old homesites, sparingly naturalized in low elevation, dry to mesic areas" (Wagner et al, 1999; p. 497). In Niue, "Pawpaws grow in and around villages very commonly. The seeds germinate freely and many plants grow adventively in waste places, in the villages, in ravines below the villages on the west side, and to a limited extent along the roadsides" (Sykes, 1970; p. 57). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 31). "In Guam papayas are quite common as naturalized plants in abandoned farm clearings" (Stone, 1970; p. 429). In Fiji, "cultivated and sometimes naturalized...near sea level" (Smith, 1981; pp. 672-673). In Tonga, "commonly cultivated in villages and plantations...and frequent as an escape" (Yuncker, 1959; pp. 193-194).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Neotropics (Wagner et al, 1999; p. 497).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 53)
"Occurs on all of the islands both cultivated and spontaneously".
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 48)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 53)
"Occurs on all of the islands both cultivated and spontaneously".
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 48)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 37106)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 53)
"Occurs on all of the islands both cultivated and spontaneously".
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 48)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 11700)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 39104)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya L.
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 9)
Sometimes grows wild.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 67)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31590 (US), Falanruw 2347 (US?)
Sparingly naturalized.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 48)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31698 (US, BISH)
Sparingly naturalized.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1704 (US)
Sparingly naturalized.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2260 (US)
Sparingly naturalized.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Medinilla (Marpi, Medinilla) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 34)
Sparingly naturalized.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1977) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 3133 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58952
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2349 (US)
Sparingly naturalized.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Anderson 607 (US, BISH, Fo), Fosberg 31390 (US)
Sparingly naturalized.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manuae Atoll (Northern Cook Islands) introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Nassau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Pukapuka Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Rakahanga Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Suwarrow (Taka) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Palmerston (Avarau) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Etal (Ettan) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nama Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
Merlin, M./Juvik, J. (1996) (p. 103)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 40)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namonuito (Namonweito, Nómwun Wiité) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nomwin (Nómwiin) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 52)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 196 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 14)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Ant Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Mokil (Mwokil) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pingelap Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 60)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 77)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 6 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4257 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 33 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 69 (BISH, NY, PTBG), A. Dores 134 (BISH, NY, PTBG), B. Ekiek 72 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 26090 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 26226 (BISH), F. Sohl 16 (NY, PTBG), F. Sohl 51 (NY, PTBG) M. Takamatsu 1013 (BISH), C.Y.C. Wong 47 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 46210)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 41831)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43455)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43483)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 46129)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 48650)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Eauripik Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Evans 370 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Lamotrek Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 9)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 672-673)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 850
Naturalized
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 672-673)
Voucher cited: Seemann 191
Naturalized
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 672-673)
Vouchers cited: DA 2707, DA 6020, DA 11476, Graeffe 1409
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: St. John 14663 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39394)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40887)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 28)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 28)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: BRY 25423
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10310 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Cartier 332
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: C.L. Cartier 107 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 254 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 332 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mopelia (Mapetia, Maupiha‘a, Maupihoa, Mopiha‘a) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 31)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Moore 268
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Manuae (Scilly) Atoll (Society Islands) introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 28)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 28)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Setchell & Parks 132
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2629 (PAP)
Planté et largement naturalisé dans l'île autour des habitations.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 47)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 54590 (US)
Persisting after cultivation, readily naturalizing
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 20)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4844 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10179 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll invasive
cultivated
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 25)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 14)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 30)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tenarunga Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11421 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 429)
Voucher cited: Stone 3892 (GUAM)
Naturalized
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 497)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 497)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2010) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & Perlman H50811 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (p. 3)
Vouchers cited: (East Maui) Flynn & Bub 2517 (BISH); (West Maui) Oppenheimer H59918 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 497)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank (2011) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H70915 (BISH, PTBG)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 284)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Japan (offshore islands)
Minami Tori Shima (Marcus) Island
Minami Tori Shima (Marcus) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Kiribati
Banaba Island
Banaba (Ocean) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Caroline Atoll introduced
cultivated
Kepler, Angela K./Kepler, Cameron B. (1994) (p. 36)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Flint Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold/Fosberg, F. Raymond (1937) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: St. John & Fosberg 17471 (BISH)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll cultivated
Chock, Alvin K./Hamilton, Jr., Dean C. (1962) (p. 5)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 27)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 27)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (p. 77)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 27)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
cultivated
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (pp. 56, 77)
At the settlement.
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 173)
Voucher cited: Luomala 15
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Nonouti Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Onotoa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Onotoa Atoll cultivated
Moul, Edwin T. (1957) (p. 17)
Vouchers cited: Moul 8150 (US), Moul 8153 (US), Moul 8230 (US)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands   Unknown (year unknown)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 331)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 6)
"Common; planted food crop around houses, other plants growing spontaneously in ruderal and wetland areas".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 34128, Herbst 9028, Whistler 11177
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34128 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Lae Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Lae Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34059 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Namu Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Rongelap (Roñlap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujae Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujae Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34344 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujelang Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujelang Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34213 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Ailuk (Aelok) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33961 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. ii)
Voucher cited: Anderson 3668
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 6)
"Common; some plants as food crop around houses, more along roadside, ruderal areas and at forest edges, male plants so clearly escaped from cultivation".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Aur Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Aur Atoll introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1951) (p. 284)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Jemo Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Jemo Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33882 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 81)
Occasional escape or volunteer.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1951) (p. 284)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mejit (Mãjej) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A12)
Uncommon; planted as food crop; Mili, Tokewa, Bar, Nallo.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Toke (Taka) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Toke (Taka) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33736 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Utirik (Utrik, Utrõk) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33760 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 36)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 113)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 58694 (US)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Däniker 3009 (Z)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 27)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 5283, MacKee 21470
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Pancher s.n.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 57)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168861, CHR 168862
Naturalized
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 28)
Occasional in disturbed places.
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 87)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9810 (BISH)
"Common about dwellings, in theickets and along roadsides throughout the island".
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1992) (voucher ID: BNM 92)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 237)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 238)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngeanges Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Merir Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Pulo Ana Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 235)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 236)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 389)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 43)
Voucher cited: R. A. Young 6
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 55)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Scarth-Johnson 33
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 193-194)
"Common throughout the group".
Frequent as an escape.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Ellison, Joanna C. (1990) (p. 26)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3857)
Taxon name on voucher: Carica papaya
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 348)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 39)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Nui Atoll   Woodroffe, C. D. (1985) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Woodroffe 191 (CHR)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Unknown (year unknown)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 58)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-5)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 080601-03
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 16)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 12)
Persisting from cultivation.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 31)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 104)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 23)
Casual
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 108)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 38)
North Keeling Island
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 154)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 873 (K)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 33)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 12)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 27)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 117)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7270 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 179)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2824 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 147)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52096 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7214 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Desnoeufs Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 208)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 48)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 190)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 168)

Comments:  Commonly naturalizing in disturbed areas (especially burned areas) on most Pacific Islands but usually not persisting. An invasive plant in the Galápagos Islands per Charles Darwin Research Station.


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This page was created on 20 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 6 NOV 2011.