Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Citrus medica
L., Rutaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: limon real, setlas, tronkon setlas

Chinese: xiang yuan

English: citron

Fijian: moli, moli karokaro

French: cédratier

Maori (Cook Islands): rēneme māori

Niuean: tīpolo

Samoan: moli patupatu, moli patupatu, moli patupatu, tīpolo, tipolo, tīpolo, tīpolo patupatu, tīpolo patupatu

Spanish: cidro, citrón, toronja

Tahitian: tapolo

Tokelauan: tīpolo

Tongan: lemani, lemani petepete

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Small tree; twigs angled, purplish when young, soon rounding; axillary spines short, stout; leaves ovate, blunt to rounded at tip, rounded or cuneate at base, the margins serrate; petioles with very narrow wings, or wingless, not conspicuously jointed to blade; flowers bisexual or staminate; petals 5, exterior pinkish; stamens 30-60; ovary 10-13-locular; fruit ovoid to oblong, the surface usually bumpy, yellow when ripe, the rind very thick; segments greenish, sour to slightly sweet"  (Stone, 1970; p. 352).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "occasionally cultivated and sparingly naturalized at elevations up to about 100 m" (Smith, 1985; p. 518).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Only cultivated, possible origin northeastern India" (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 44)
"A few trees in almost every village".
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 44)
"A few trees in almost every village".
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 44)
"A few trees in almost every village".
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 14)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 86)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 518)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 895
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Tuvutha Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 518)
Voucher cited: Bryan 545
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 518)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 1088
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 518)
Voucher cited: Meebold 16487
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 253)
Vouchers cited: Moore 151, Moore 416
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 253)
Voucher cited: Grant 3999
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 37)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 352)
Rare in cultivation.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 123)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 102)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 125)
Voucher cited: MacKee 37314
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 139)
Relic of cultivation.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 41)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 272)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 344)
Occasionally planted, but nowhere spontaneous.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 38)
Observed in 1934.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & S. Waldren 11036 (PAP)
Cultivée
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 199)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 152)
Voucher cited: Rhyne 774 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 136)


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This page was created on 21 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 26 JUN 2009.