Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cynodon nlemfuensis
Vanderyst, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: African Bermuda grass, Bermudagrass, Rhodesian star grass, robust star grass

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennial; mat forming. Rhizomes absent. Stolons present; with alternating elongated and bunched internodes. Culms geniculately ascending; 30-60 cm long; 1-3 mm diameter; firm. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; 0.3 mm long. Leaf-blades flat; 5-16 cm long; 2-6 mm wide; stiff, or firm; mid-green, or glaucous. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy.  Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 4-8(-13); digitate; straight, or flexuous; unilateral; 4-7(-10) cm long. Rhachis flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; regular; 2-rowed.  Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.  Fertile spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2-3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.  Glumes persistent; similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of upper glume; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 1-veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.5-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 1-veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute.  Florets: Fertile lemma ovate; laterally compressed; 2-3 mm long; cartilaginous; mid-green, or red; keeled; 3-veined. Lemma midvein pubescent, or ciliate. Lemma apex acute. Palea 2-veined. Palea keels eciliate.  Fruit a caryopsis with adherent pericarp"  (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Central to southern Africa, "naturalized elsewhere, including s. United States" (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Shipman s.n. (BISH 118468)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 20)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H120102 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
Adventive
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Herbst & Spence 5096 (BISH)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Texas


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 28 JUN 2009 and was last updated on 30 JUN 2009.