Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Etlingera elatior
(Jack) R.M.Sm., Zingiberaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Alpinia elatior Jack; Nicolaia elatior (Jack) Horan.; Phaeomeria magnifica (Roscoe) K. Schum.; Phaeomeria speciosa (Blume) Koord.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: huo ju jiang

English: torch ginger, wax flower

Hawaiian: ‘awapuhi ko‘oko‘o

Marquesan: eka, opuhi, pua vao

Tahitian: ‘awapuhi, opuhi

Habit:  herb

Description:  "A coarse herb growing in large clumps 3-6 m high; its leaves are up to 85 x 18 cm; the scape may be as much as 1.5 m tall, and the inflorescence bracts are bright red; the inner perianth segments are pink, the labellum being red with a yellow or white margin and the anther red; the fruits are green to reddish" (Smith, 1979).

"Pseudostems closely grouped, to 5 m. Ligule 2-lobed, to 1.5 cm, glabrous; petiole 3-4 cm; leaf blade lanceolate, to 80 x 18 cm, glabrous. Inflorescence surrounded by involucral bracts; peduncle raised well above ground, long, 0.8-1(-1.5) m, robust; involucral bracts red, tapering toward apex, 2-3 x ca. 1 cm, glabrous; floral bracts similar to involucral bracts but pinkish, smaller; bracteoles tubular, ca. 2 cm, deeply split on 1 side. Calyx 3-4 cm, apex 3-toothed. Corolla pink to red, sometimes white. Labellum deep red with yellow margin. Filament short, flat, whitish pubescent; anther red, longer than filament. Fruiting head greenish or reddish, globose, ca. 2.5 cm in diam. Seeds many, black." (Flora of China)

Habitat/ecology:  "Cultivated for ornament, possibly naturalized in forests at lower elevations." (Flora of China)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Widely distributed in Malesia, subsequently introduced into the Philippines, and now widely cultivated elsewhere" (Smith, 1979; p. 199). "Native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and S Thailand; widely cultivated and naturalized in SE Asia" (Flora of China)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 63)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 199)
Vouchers cited: DA 12164, DA 16082, DA 16099
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 380)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 380)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Nicolaia elatior (W. Jack) P.F. Horaninow. Voucher cited: J. Florence 2613 (PAP)
Cultivée. Ornementale commune.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1616)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David (year unknown)
Escape from cultivation.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 76)
As Nicolaia elatior (Jack) Horan.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 142)
Voucher cited: MacKee 34700
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 113)
Cultivated?
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 199)
Cultivated?
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 353)
Ornamental.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) uncertain if native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Possibly native.
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) uncertain if native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Possibly native.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 40)
Cultivated only

Comments:  Escaped from cultivation in Hawai‘i (Kaua‘i) per David Lorence, pers. com.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 16 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 26 JUN 2009.