Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ixophorus unisetus
(K.[C.?] Presl) Schlechtend., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Urochloa uniseta J. Presl

Common name(s): [more details]

English: crane grass, flatstem, Mexican grass, turkey grass

Spanish: hático, pitillo, zacate blanco

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Habit: Perennial; caespitose. Basal innovations flabellate. Culms 50-140 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2.5 mm long. Leaf-blades 25-75 cm long; 10-25 mm wide. Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes numerous; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 2-8 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 10-25 cm long. Rhachis angular; terminating in a barren extension; extension bristle-like. Spikelet packing abaxial; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; 5-10 mm long. Involucral bristles persistent; few; 1 per spikelet; flexible; viscid. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 3.5-4.7 mm long; falling entire. Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.7-1.5 mm long; 0.2-0.3 times length of spikelet; herbaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 3.5-4.7 mm long; 1.75 times length of adjacent fertile lemma; herbaceous; without keels; 9-11 -veined. Upper glume apex acute. Florets: Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 times length of spikelet; cartilaginous; 5 -veined; acute. Palea of lower sterile floret becoming indurate on flanks at maturity (and orbicular); winged on keels. Fertile lemma elliptic; 2-3 mm long; indurate; without keel. Lemma surface papillose. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex apiculate. Palea indurate"  (GrassBase).

"The root is fibrous and the stem is decumbent, 60 to 100 centimeters tall, broad and flat at the base and light green in color.  The leafves are linear-lanceolate, 30 centimeters long and 2 centimeters wide.  The inflorescence is a panicle and the fruit is a caryopside"  (Cardenas et al., 1972; p. 31).

Habitat/ecology:  "A common grass in pastures and roadsides"  (Cardenas et al., 1972; p. 31).

In Hawai‘i, introduced in experimental plots and grown in test pastures.  Present status unknown, possibly naturalized (Herbst & Wagner, 1999; p. 27)

Propagation:  Seed (Cardenas et al., 1972; p. 31).

Native range:  Cuba, Mexico, Central America and northern South America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 27)
Vouchers cited: Caum s.n. (BISH 119543), Caum s.n. (BISH 119544)
Present status unknown
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 27)
Vouchers cited: No name 708 (BISH 119542), Munro 532 (BISH)
Present status unknown
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 27)
Vouchers cited: Cooke 7 (BISH), Brown 1471 (BISH), Krauss s.n. (BISH 119548)
Present status unknown
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 23 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.