Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Nasturtium officinale
R.Br., Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Radicula nasturtium Cav.; Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek

Common name(s): [more details]

English: watercress

French: cresson, cresson d'eau, cresson de fontaine

Hawaiian: lēkō

Japanese: chisa, kawara-chisa, mizu-garashi, oranda-garashi

Spanish: berro, berro común, berro de agua, berros

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs perennial, rhizomatous, aquatic, 10-70 (-200) cm tall, glabrous throughout or sparsely pubescent with simple trichomes. Stems decumbent or prostrate, erect in emergent plants, branched above, rooting at proximal nodes. Leaves all cauline, pinnately compound, 3-9 (-13)-foliolate; petiole auriculate at base; terminal leaflet suborbicular or oblong, 1-4 cm, base obtuse, cuneate, or subcordate, margin entire or repand, apex obtuse; lateral leaflets smaller, usually sessile. Fruiting pedicels slender, divaricate or recurved, 5-12 (-20) mm. Sepals oblong, 2-3.5 mm, lateral pair slightly saccate. Petals white or pink, spatulate or obovate, 2.8-4.5 (-6) x 1.5-25 mm, apex rounded; claw ca. 1 mm. Filaments white, 2-3.5 mm; anthers oblong, ca. 0.6 mm. Fruit cylindric, 1-1.5 (-2) cm x (1.8-) 2-2.5 (-3) mm; valves with an obscure midvein; style 0.5-1 (-1.5) mm. Seeds biseriate, ovoid, 1-1.3 x 0.7-1 mm, reddish brown, coarsely reticulate, with 25-50 (-60) areolae on each side"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Caledonia, "Le cresson de fontaine, assez rarement naturalsé aux bords des ruisseaux à courant faible." (MacKee, 1994; p. 45).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Indigenous in Europe and western Asia, now cultivated and often naturalized in many other parts of the world" (Smith, 1981; pp. 709-710).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
As Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
As Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 709-710)
Infrequently naturalized.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 288)
Naturalized
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 45)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 2864, MacKee 8077
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago possibly native
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 194)
Found only in the vicinity of settlements.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 186)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 208)
Abundant in shallow water and in small streams in Trinidad Valley, altitude about 1,300 m. Probably introduced since 1912.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 186)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 5)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Streams, ditches, lakes, swamps, marshes; near sea level to 3700 m".
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 186)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 246)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 186)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/naturalisé"
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 47)

Comments:  Naturalized and more or less invasive in La Réunion per Christophe Lavergne, pers. com.


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This page was created on 2 MAR 2006 and was last updated on 30 APR 2011.