Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR)

Paratachardina pseudolobata
(Kerriidae)

 
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Lobate lac scale is a scale insect (Hemiptera: Kerriidae) that infests small stems of trees and shrubs. "The mature female is about 1.5-2 mm in diameter and has a very characteristic x-shaped appearance. The external covering of the insect is very hard and brittle and deep red to maroon in color. They may occasionally appear dull and black due to the growth of sooty mold. The first instar, known as crawlers, are elongate-oval, red in color, and less than 0.5 mm in length. The second instar develops the characteristic lobate shape, then presumably molts to the adult form as in other scale insects. Males of the species have not been observed."  The polyphagous lobate lac scale does severe damage to many tree and woody shrub species, primarily attacking small branches and stems 2-4cm in diameter, and commonly killing individuals of the most susceptible species, in Florida most notably the native wax myrtle (Morella cerifera). It has been highly damaging to a broad range of plants in Florida, documented infesting 307 plant species in 61 families (83 species were Florida natives), and quickly became a high-priority target for classical biological control. Because of its very broad host range, it is not known what endemic Hawaiian plant species would be damaged if the lobate lac scale reached Hawaii. Given that nearly 10% (30) of the 307 species found in Florida to be hosts of Paratachardina pseudolobata are in the same family (Myrtaceae) as Hawaii's dominant native forest tree, ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha), this species might be at risk for vulnerability.  The first report of lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata) in Hawaii was on Oahu in October, 2012.  Until Paratachardina pseudolobata was described as a new species in 2007, lobate lac scale in South Florida had been misidentified (since 1999) as Paratachardina lobata [subsp. lobata).  Paratachardina pseudolobata is native to (native range unknown). 


Species description or overview

Lobate lac scale,Paratachardina lobata lobata (Chamberlin) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Kerriidae)
A species of scale insect new to Florida is potentially one of the most devastating pests of trees and shrubs in the state's history. The lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata lobata* (Chamberlin) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Kerriidae), a scale insect native to India and Sri Lanka, was found for the first time in Florida in August 1999 by personnel of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry (DPI) (Hamon 2001). The identification of the species by Avas Hamon of DPI was confirmed by D. R. Miller of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD. This first record was on a hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) in the town of Davie (Broward County). The plant was destroyed by DPI personnel. Plants in the vicinity of this infested hibiscus were inspected without finding P. lobata lobata. However, the species was found again in 2000 on a Benjamin fig (Ficus benjamina) in Davie, on cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco) in Weston (Broward County), and on cocoplum at two sites in Miami (Miami-Dade County). In 2001, the scale insect species was found on 11 sites in Broward County and six sites in Miami-Dade County. In December 2001, DPI inspectors found P. lobata lobata in Lake Worth (Palm Beach County). As of October 2002, P. lobata lobata has been recorded from sites from Lake Worth on the north to Homestead (Miami-Dade County), a distance of 128 km, and from the coast to 28 km inland. In 1992, specimens of scale insects submitted to DPI from the Bahamas had been identified as P. lobata lobata. (from the introduction to the document) (article by F.W. Howard, Robert Pemberton, Avas Hamon, Greg S. Hodges, Bryan Steinberg, Catharine M. Mannion, David McLean, and Jeanette Wofford) (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate origin.)

Featured creatures: lobate lac scale
Descriptive and biololgical information is provided about Paratachardina pseudolobata--formerly misidentified as Paratachardina lobata--is provided, along with nomenclatural history and information about its invasion of South Florida, effect on host plants, host range, potential expansion in distribution, as well as pest management practices, the lac scale family (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), and selected references. This information is made available by the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (Department of Entomology and Nematology) and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (Division of Plant Industry).

Lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata): Lucid fact sheet
This Lucid fact sheet provides a description and distribution and host information for the lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan [Hemiptera: Kerriidae]), along with a few images of the insect.

Biology and control of lobate lac scale insect View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This report presents work on the bionomics and development of chemical and biological control of lobate lac scale Paratachardina lobata* (Chamberlin) and to develop chemical and biological control for it. This insect was found in Broward County in 1999, and has since become widely spread in southern Florida, and forty (40) species of trees and shrubs were previously identified as hosts. We have now identified it on more than 150 species of trees and shrubs in over 40 plant families. The scale insect attacks fruit trees, ornamental trees and shrubs of both exotic and native origin, and is found in urban and natural habitats. The effects of the scale on its hosts are 1) dieback of twigs and branches, 2) thinning of foliage due to weakening of the plant, 3) formation of sooty mold, and 4) in some species, death of the entire plant. (adapted from the introduction of the article) This 2003 report was written by F.W. Howard and C.M. Mannion and published by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate native origin.)

Lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata): Wikipedia
Summary information and a good list of references are provided for lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata) in Wikipedia (as of this writing).


Taxonomy & nomenclature

Paratachardina pseudolobata information from ITIS
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Paratachardina pseudolobata, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

Taxonomic review of the lac insect genus Paratachardina Balachowsky (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae), with a revised key to genera of Kerriidae and description of two new species View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format  important item 
The genus Paratachardina Balachowsky (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae) is revised to include nine species: Paratachardina decorella (Maskell), Paratachardina minuta (Morrison), Paratachardina mithila Varshney, Paratachardina morobensis Williams & Watson, Paratachardina silvestri (Mahdihassan), Paratachardina ternata (Chamberlin), Paratachardina theae (Green), and two new species. Tachardina lobata Chamberlin (now Paratachardina lobata) is synonymized with Tachardia silvestri Mahdihassan (now Paratachardina silvestri), based on examination of type specimens. Paratachardina capsella Wang is transferred to Albotachardina Zhang as Albotachardina capsella (Wang) comb. nov. We provide a revised taxonomic key to the genera of the family Kerriidae and to all known species of the genus Paratachardina. All Paratachardina species are redescribed and illustrated with the exception of Paratachardina mithila. One of the new species described here is the polyphagous and pestiferous lobate lac scale, which damages trees and woody shrubs in Florida, U.S.A., the Bahamas and the territory of Christmas Island, Australia, and has been identified mistakenly as Paratachardina lobata (Chamberlin), an insect native to India and Sri Lanka. Here we recognize the lobate lac scale as a new species, name it Paratachardina pseudolobata sp. nov. and describe it based on all stages of the female (adult, second instar and first instar). In addition, a second new species, Paratachardina mahdihassani sp.nbsp;nov., is described based on adult females from India. (adapted from the article's abstract) (Kondo & Gullan. 2007. Zootaxa 1617: 1-41)


Ecology & life history

Paratachardina pseudolobata description and ecology from GISD (ISSG)
A species description and information about the ecology of Paratachardina pseudolobata as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Synergistic relationships

Lobate lac scale and melaleuca: A devastating insect aided by an invasive tree View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This pamphlet discusses the interrelationship between two pest species in South Florida: lobate lac scale (Paratachardina lobata lobata*) and the invasivce tree melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia). Included is information about identification of lobate lac scale and how melaleuca, as a widespread host species, facilitates its spread. Additionally, there is a brief discussion of the potential for use of biological control agents as treatment for lobate lac scale. (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate origin.)


See also these taxa

Paratachardina lobata (a type of scale): species information from HEAR  important item 
Categorized information about Paratachardina lobata (a type of scale) is presented by the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).


Pest alerts

Lobate lac scale, Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae)
This pest alert for lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan [Hemiptera: Kerriidae]) in Florida is presented by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services/Division of Plant Industry.

Most unwanted pests in the United States: Have you seen these insects? View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This poster includes pictures of a number of pest insect species along with basic descriptive and distribution information, along with a summary of host plants.

New insect pests of South Florida View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
South Florida has several major ports of entry and one of the busiest airports in the country allowing for a great influx of international trade and tourism. Along with imported commodities and people, insects are frequent hitchhikers, with an average of one new insect species becoming established a month in south Florida. Many of these become either economic or aesthetic pests. The most concerning of these new insects includes: the lobate lac scale (Paratachardina lobata lobata* Chamberlin), pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green), Sri Lanka weevil (Myllocerus undatus Marshall), and tabebuia thrips (Holopothrips cf. inquilinus Bournier). All, except for the tabebuia thrips, have a wide host plant range, which includes many commonly grown ornamentals, and pose a significant threat to agricultural crops. In addition, little is known about their biology. Recent findings including possible biological control agents will be discussed. (adapted from the article's abstract) (Hunsberger, Adrian G.B. 2003. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 116:343-345.) (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate origin.)


Hosts

Lobate lac scale,Paratachardina lobata lobata (Chamberlin) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Kerriidae)
A species of scale insect new to Florida is potentially one of the most devastating pests of trees and shrubs in the state's history. The lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata lobata* (Chamberlin) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Kerriidae), a scale insect native to India and Sri Lanka, was found for the first time in Florida in August 1999 by personnel of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry (DPI) (Hamon 2001). The identification of the species by Avas Hamon of DPI was confirmed by D. R. Miller of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD. This first record was on a hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) in the town of Davie (Broward County). The plant was destroyed by DPI personnel. Plants in the vicinity of this infested hibiscus were inspected without finding P. lobata lobata. However, the species was found again in 2000 on a Benjamin fig (Ficus benjamina) in Davie, on cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco) in Weston (Broward County), and on cocoplum at two sites in Miami (Miami-Dade County). In 2001, the scale insect species was found on 11 sites in Broward County and six sites in Miami-Dade County. In December 2001, DPI inspectors found P. lobata lobata in Lake Worth (Palm Beach County). As of October 2002, P. lobata lobata has been recorded from sites from Lake Worth on the north to Homestead (Miami-Dade County), a distance of 128 km, and from the coast to 28 km inland. In 1992, specimens of scale insects submitted to DPI from the Bahamas had been identified as P. lobata lobata. (from the introduction to the document) (article by F.W. Howard, Robert Pemberton, Avas Hamon, Greg S. Hodges, Bryan Steinberg, Catharine M. Mannion, David McLean, and Jeanette Wofford) (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate origin.)

Featured creatures: lobate lac scale
Descriptive and biololgical information is provided about Paratachardina pseudolobata--formerly misidentified as Paratachardina lobata--is provided, along with nomenclatural history and information about its invasion of South Florida, effect on host plants, host range, potential expansion in distribution, as well as pest management practices, the lac scale family (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), and selected references. This information is made available by the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (Department of Entomology and Nematology) and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (Division of Plant Industry).

Host plant range of lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata, in Florida View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A list of host plant species of lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata* (Chamberlin) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae), in southern Florida was compiled from the authors' observations and records of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods. This scale insect was found on 307 plant species, nearly all of which are dicotyledonous trees, shrubs, or lianas. Hosts included plant species grown for fruits and as ornamentals, several weeds, and eighty-three species native to southern Florida. In addition to tropical plants, which predominate in this region, it was found on many temperate zone plants whose ranges extend to southern Florida. Seventeen plant species were consistently highly infested at different sites, and are thus considered highly susceptible; of these, ten are plants native to Florida. (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate native origin.) (Howard, F.W., R.W. Pemberton, Hodges, G.S., B. Steinberg, D. McLean, and Hong Liu. 2006. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 119:398-408.)


Dispersal and pathways

Lobate lac scale and melaleuca: A devastating insect aided by an invasive tree View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This pamphlet discusses the interrelationship between two pest species in South Florida: lobate lac scale (Paratachardina lobata lobata*) and the invasivce tree melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia). Included is information about identification of lobate lac scale and how melaleuca, as a widespread host species, facilitates its spread. Additionally, there is a brief discussion of the potential for use of biological control agents as treatment for lobate lac scale. (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate origin.)


Control methods

Biology and control of lobate lac scale insect View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This report presents work on the bionomics and development of chemical and biological control of lobate lac scale Paratachardina lobata* (Chamberlin) and to develop chemical and biological control for it. This insect was found in Broward County in 1999, and has since become widely spread in southern Florida, and forty (40) species of trees and shrubs were previously identified as hosts. We have now identified it on more than 150 species of trees and shrubs in over 40 plant families. The scale insect attacks fruit trees, ornamental trees and shrubs of both exotic and native origin, and is found in urban and natural habitats. The effects of the scale on its hosts are 1) dieback of twigs and branches, 2) thinning of foliage due to weakening of the plant, 3) formation of sooty mold, and 4) in some species, death of the entire plant. (adapted from the introduction of the article) This 2003 report was written by F.W. Howard and C.M. Mannion and published by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate native origin.)

Paratachardina pseudolobata management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Paratachardina pseudolobata as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Biocontrol efforts

Host acceptance trials of parasitoids from Indian Paratachardina lobata (Hemiptera: Kerridae) on the invasive lobate lac scale in Florida
The invasive lobate lac scale identified as Paratachardina lobata* (Chamberlin) (Hemiptera: Keriidae) is a severe threat to native and economic plants in southern Florida. In an attempt to find appropriate control against the invasive scale, 3 parasitoid species associated with this species in its native southern India were tested in host acceptance trials in quarantine. Ooencyrtus kerriae Hayat (Encyrtidae) and Coccophagus parlobatae Hayat (Aphelinidae) drill their ovipositor through the rigid lac covering of the scale, whereas Aprostocetus bangaloricus Narendran (Eulophidae) oviposits into the anal pore of the scale. Despite this apparent oviposition behavior, their reproduction on lobate lac scale in these tests failed. Ooencyrtus kerriae and C. parlobatae yielded insignificant numbers of offspring and A. bangaloricus did not reproduce on lobate lac scale in Florida. To investigate the lack of offspring, scales were dissected 2 months after parasitoid oviposition. No parasitoid development to the larval stage was recorded in the scales, but round blood cell accumulations were found, which appeared to be encapsulations of parasitoid eggs. These findings indicate a strong immune response of the invasive scale to the tested parasitoids. The unsuitability of the invasive lac scale as a host for these parasitoids suggests that the invasive lobate lac scale and the Indian P. lobata differ physiologically. Additional surveys are needed to find a better matching form of the invasive lobate lac scale in order to obtain more suitable parasitoids for the control of this serious pest in Florida. (adapted from the article's abstract) (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]. It was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate native origin, so note, then, that references in the article to the species' native range may be in error.) (Sibylle Schroer and Robert W. Pemberton. 2007. Florida Entomologist 90 (3), 545-552.)

Parasitoids of Paratachardina lobata (Hem., Kerriidae): surveys for biological control of the invasive lobate lac scale
Paratachardina lobata* is an invasive pest in southern Florida, threatening a great number of economically important and native plants. The lobate lac scale does not cause problems in its area of origin, India and Sri Lanka, presumably due to various parasitoid wasps. In an attempt to discover promising parasitoids for biological control against the invasive pest in Florida, P. lobata infesting Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae) was collected bimonthly from August 2005 to June 2006 at 14 sites in southern India. Four parasitoids were demonstrably associated with P. lobata: a eulophid Aprostocetus bangaloricus Narendran, an encyrtid Ooencyrtus kerriae Hayat and two aphelinids, Marietta leopardina Motschulsky and an undescribed Coccophagus Westwood sp. These chalcidoid wasps were found regularly at all heavily infested sites with an average emergence number per collection period of 62.8, 31.7, 11.9 and 90.5 respectively. The mean number emerged 20#28 days after the collection date, excluding the Coccophagus sp., which occurred significantly later, on average 41 days after collection. Species emergence was examined and parasitized scales dissected. Parasitoid remains were interpreted to understand the mode of parasitism. The Coccophagus sp. was found to be a secondary parasitoid. Marietta leopardina occurred as a primary parasitoid, but only in low number and this species is also known to be hyperparasitic on chalcidoid wasps. Aprostocetus bangaloricus and O. kerriae are promising candidates for the lobate lac scale control in Florida. They are primary parasitoids of P. lobata and occurred at almost every collection site, especially where P. lobata was very abundant. (adapted from the article's abstract) (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]. It was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate native origin, so note, then, that references in the article to the species' native range [and implications thereof] may be in error.)

Potential for biological control of the lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata lobata (Hemiptera: Kerriidae)
The lobate lac scale insect, Paratachardina lobata lobata* (Chamberlin) (Kerriidae: Coccoidea: Hemiptera), a recent invader of southern Florida from India and Sri Lanka, now infests more than 160 economic and native plants in at least 49 plant families. It is killing wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera L.) and coco plum (Chrysobalanus icaco L.), valued native and horticultural plants in many locations. Intensive insecticide use in infested natural and residential areas is an unsuitable control approach because of the large numbers of plants infested, the high cost, and probable damage to non-target organisms. Biological control is a much needed solution for lobate lac scale. No parasitism has been detected in Florida. The lobate lac scale is native to India and Sri Lanka, occurring in localities south of 16 degrees N. latitude. The known host range includes some of the same species and families of host plants as it does in Florida, plus other plant groups on which it has yet to be detected in Florida. The natural enemies of the lobate lac scale have not been previously sought nor studied, but those of the related true lac scale of commerce are relatively well known, and some of these appear to have potential for biological control of the lobate lac scale. The most important natural enemies are predaceous Lepidoptera and Chrysopa species, and parasitic encyrtid and euplophid chalcidoid wasps. The chalcidoid wasps, with narrower host ranges, appear to be more suitable as potential biological control agents. Among these, Tachardiaephagus tachardiae Howard (Encyrtidae), seems particularly promising. It attacks the lobate lac scale, is known only from lac scale hosts, is not hyperparasitic, is one of the most important parasitoids of lac scale, has 9-12 generations per year, and occurs in the same climatic conditions as occur in southern Florida. It is recommended that this wasp and two other important parasitoids of the true lac scale, T. somervilli Madhihassen (Encyrtidae) and Coccophagus tschirchii Madhihassen (Eulophidae), be acquired and evaluated as potential biological control agents of the lobate lac scale. Explorations for unknown natural enemies of lobate lac scale in India and Sri Lanka should also be undertaken in locations with climatic similarity to that of southern Florida. Host speci?city testing of species belonging to Florida#s 12 native scale families (Coccoidea) and allied Hemiptera is advisable to define the potential host ranges and thus the safety of candidate biological control agents. The prospects of effective and safe biological control appear to be good. No native lac scales (Kerriidae) occur in Florida, and parasitoids are known that appear to be both narrow specialists and damaging to their host lac scales. (from the abstract of the article) (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate origin [so note that information about the native range of this species as mentioned in this article may not be reliable].)

Paratachardina pseudolobata management information from GISD (ISSG)
Management information for Paratachardina pseudolobata as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Images

Images of lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata): EDDMapS/FLEPPC
Selected images of lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata* [Hemiptera: Kerriidae]) are available from the Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS)/Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC)/Florida Invasive Species Partnership (FISP). (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate origin.)

Images of lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata)
Images of lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata) are available from Forestry Images.

Featured creatures: lobate lac scale
Descriptive and biololgical information is provided about Paratachardina pseudolobata--formerly misidentified as Paratachardina lobata--is provided, along with nomenclatural history and information about its invasion of South Florida, effect on host plants, host range, potential expansion in distribution, as well as pest management practices, the lac scale family (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), and selected references. This information is made available by the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (Department of Entomology and Nematology) and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (Division of Plant Industry).

Lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata): Lucid fact sheet
This Lucid fact sheet provides a description and distribution and host information for the lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan [Hemiptera: Kerriidae]), along with a few images of the insect.

Most unwanted pests in the United States: Have you seen these insects? View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This poster includes pictures of a number of pest insect species along with basic descriptive and distribution information, along with a summary of host plants.


Distribution

Paratachardina pseudolobata worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG)
Worldwide distribution information about Paratachardina pseudolobata is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Full-text articles

Coccidology. The study of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A brief introduction to the science of coccidology, and a synopsis of the history, advances and challenges in this field of study are discussed. The changes in occidology since the publication of the Systema Naturae by Carolus Linnaeus 250 years ago are briefly reviewed. The economic importance, the phylogenetic relationships and the application of DNA barcoding to scale insect identification are also considered in the discussion section.

Parasitoids of Paratachardina lobata (Hem., Kerriidae): surveys for biological control of the invasive lobate lac scale
Paratachardina lobata* is an invasive pest in southern Florida, threatening a great number of economically important and native plants. The lobate lac scale does not cause problems in its area of origin, India and Sri Lanka, presumably due to various parasitoid wasps. In an attempt to discover promising parasitoids for biological control against the invasive pest in Florida, P. lobata infesting Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae) was collected bimonthly from August 2005 to June 2006 at 14 sites in southern India. Four parasitoids were demonstrably associated with P. lobata: a eulophid Aprostocetus bangaloricus Narendran, an encyrtid Ooencyrtus kerriae Hayat and two aphelinids, Marietta leopardina Motschulsky and an undescribed Coccophagus Westwood sp. These chalcidoid wasps were found regularly at all heavily infested sites with an average emergence number per collection period of 62.8, 31.7, 11.9 and 90.5 respectively. The mean number emerged 20#28 days after the collection date, excluding the Coccophagus sp., which occurred significantly later, on average 41 days after collection. Species emergence was examined and parasitized scales dissected. Parasitoid remains were interpreted to understand the mode of parasitism. The Coccophagus sp. was found to be a secondary parasitoid. Marietta leopardina occurred as a primary parasitoid, but only in low number and this species is also known to be hyperparasitic on chalcidoid wasps. Aprostocetus bangaloricus and O. kerriae are promising candidates for the lobate lac scale control in Florida. They are primary parasitoids of P. lobata and occurred at almost every collection site, especially where P. lobata was very abundant. (adapted from the article's abstract) (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]. It was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate native origin, so note, then, that references in the article to the species' native range [and implications thereof] may be in error.)

Temporal and spatial characterization of an infestation of Paratachardina lobata lobata (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), a new invasive pest in Florida
The lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata lobata* (Chamberlin) was first found in south Florida in 1999. Reported hosts are present in the germplasm collection located at the USDA/ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station in Miami, and the scale was first found there in the summer of 2002. A study was initiated to determine the spatio-temporal dynamics of a lobate lac scale infestation at SHRS from Jul 2003 to Jul 2005. Numbers and percentages of viable adults, and reproductive success as indicated by ratio of nymphs to viable adults (<2 cm diam and 30 cm long branch sample) were recorded. There were 55 plants evaluated over the 80 hectares study site. Infestation increased from 42% of sampled plants at the start of the study to 75% at the end, and most of the plants had low or moderate levels of infestation (between 0 and 100 adults per 30 cm branch) over the course of the study. Percentage of non-viable adults dropped from 27% at the start of the study to 7% by the end of the study, and ratio of nymphs to viable adults dropped from 9% to 2%. Spatial analysis showed that initial infestations were along the eastern edge of the sampled area, with populations declining over the first half of the study but then increasing during the second half. Over the course of the study, heavy infestations (>=100 scales per 30 cm branch) were found on only seven host plants. Among plants located in areas of high infestation probabilities, individual host susceptibility appeared to be the primary factor regulating infestation level. (from article's abstract) (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate origin.) (Nancy D. Epsky, Divina Amalin, Paul E. Kendra, Helena Puche, and Catharine M. Mannion. 2006. Florida Entomologist 89 (3), 367-374)

Paratachardina pseudolobata (Coccoidea: Kerriidae): Bionomics in Florida
The lobate lac scale, Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan, attacks large numbers of plants in Florida. The scales primarily infest the branches and main stems <2 cm in diameter; rarely were they found on stems that were larger than 4 cm in diameter or on leaves and never on roots. They produce honeydew, but ants did not tend the scales nor did ants appear attracted to the honeydew, which is ejected from the scale instead of being present in collectable droplets. Males have not been found in Florida populations of the lobate lac scale and females are parthenogenetic and ovoviviparous. The scales developed into adult females in 15#19 weeks. Crawlers of second generation were present 21 weeks after young crawlers of the previous generation were placed on a host plant. The pre-imaginal stadia were: first instar 8#11 weeks; second instar 7#8 weeks. The numbers of crawlers counted per month on host plants were notably uniform throughout the year, but there was evidence of a slight increase in crawler production during the warmer months. Lobate lac scales subjected to a simulated frost of -3C had a low survival rate. In a test of survival without a host, one of 22 crawlers survived 14 d, and 3 of 32 survived 18 d. Based on the numbers of exit holes in mature female tests, the parasitism rate since this pest was found in Florida is not greater than 1%. (from the abstract of the document) (F. W. Howard, Robert Pemberton, Sibylle Schroer, and Gregory Hodges. 2010. Florida Entomologist 93(1):1-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1653/024.093.0101)

Potential for biological control of the lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata lobata (Hemiptera: Kerriidae)
The lobate lac scale insect, Paratachardina lobata lobata* (Chamberlin) (Kerriidae: Coccoidea: Hemiptera), a recent invader of southern Florida from India and Sri Lanka, now infests more than 160 economic and native plants in at least 49 plant families. It is killing wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera L.) and coco plum (Chrysobalanus icaco L.), valued native and horticultural plants in many locations. Intensive insecticide use in infested natural and residential areas is an unsuitable control approach because of the large numbers of plants infested, the high cost, and probable damage to non-target organisms. Biological control is a much needed solution for lobate lac scale. No parasitism has been detected in Florida. The lobate lac scale is native to India and Sri Lanka, occurring in localities south of 16 degrees N. latitude. The known host range includes some of the same species and families of host plants as it does in Florida, plus other plant groups on which it has yet to be detected in Florida. The natural enemies of the lobate lac scale have not been previously sought nor studied, but those of the related true lac scale of commerce are relatively well known, and some of these appear to have potential for biological control of the lobate lac scale. The most important natural enemies are predaceous Lepidoptera and Chrysopa species, and parasitic encyrtid and euplophid chalcidoid wasps. The chalcidoid wasps, with narrower host ranges, appear to be more suitable as potential biological control agents. Among these, Tachardiaephagus tachardiae Howard (Encyrtidae), seems particularly promising. It attacks the lobate lac scale, is known only from lac scale hosts, is not hyperparasitic, is one of the most important parasitoids of lac scale, has 9-12 generations per year, and occurs in the same climatic conditions as occur in southern Florida. It is recommended that this wasp and two other important parasitoids of the true lac scale, T. somervilli Madhihassen (Encyrtidae) and Coccophagus tschirchii Madhihassen (Eulophidae), be acquired and evaluated as potential biological control agents of the lobate lac scale. Explorations for unknown natural enemies of lobate lac scale in India and Sri Lanka should also be undertaken in locations with climatic similarity to that of southern Florida. Host speci?city testing of species belonging to Florida#s 12 native scale families (Coccoidea) and allied Hemiptera is advisable to define the potential host ranges and thus the safety of candidate biological control agents. The prospects of effective and safe biological control appear to be good. No native lac scales (Kerriidae) occur in Florida, and parasitoids are known that appear to be both narrow specialists and damaging to their host lac scales. (from the abstract of the article) (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate origin [so note that information about the native range of this species as mentioned in this article may not be reliable].)

High risk insect pests: monitoring and diagnosis View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This article highlights the importance of quick identification and eradication of high-priority insect pests, as well as the importance of communication during these processes. Examples of high-risk species in ornamental and other crops in Florida include Diaprepes root weevil, Sri Lanka weevil, pink hibiscus mealybug, lobate lac scale, and Asian cycad scale. (Mannion, C. 2003. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.116:78-79.)

New insect pests of South Florida View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
South Florida has several major ports of entry and one of the busiest airports in the country allowing for a great influx of international trade and tourism. Along with imported commodities and people, insects are frequent hitchhikers, with an average of one new insect species becoming established a month in south Florida. Many of these become either economic or aesthetic pests. The most concerning of these new insects includes: the lobate lac scale (Paratachardina lobata lobata* Chamberlin), pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green), Sri Lanka weevil (Myllocerus undatus Marshall), and tabebuia thrips (Holopothrips cf. inquilinus Bournier). All, except for the tabebuia thrips, have a wide host plant range, which includes many commonly grown ornamentals, and pose a significant threat to agricultural crops. In addition, little is known about their biology. Recent findings including possible biological control agents will be discussed. (adapted from the article's abstract) (Hunsberger, Adrian G.B. 2003. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 116:343-345.) (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate origin.)

Host plant range of lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata, in Florida View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
A list of host plant species of lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata* (Chamberlin) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae), in southern Florida was compiled from the authors' observations and records of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods. This scale insect was found on 307 plant species, nearly all of which are dicotyledonous trees, shrubs, or lianas. Hosts included plant species grown for fruits and as ornamentals, several weeds, and eighty-three species native to southern Florida. In addition to tropical plants, which predominate in this region, it was found on many temperate zone plants whose ranges extend to southern Florida. Seventeen plant species were consistently highly infested at different sites, and are thus considered highly susceptible; of these, ten are plants native to Florida. (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate native origin.) (Howard, F.W., R.W. Pemberton, Hodges, G.S., B. Steinberg, D. McLean, and Hong Liu. 2006. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 119:398-408.)

Taxonomic review of the lac insect genus Paratachardina Balachowsky (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae), with a revised key to genera of Kerriidae and description of two new species View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
The genus Paratachardina Balachowsky (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae) is revised to include nine species: Paratachardina decorella (Maskell), Paratachardina minuta (Morrison), Paratachardina mithila Varshney, Paratachardina morobensis Williams & Watson, Paratachardina silvestri (Mahdihassan), Paratachardina ternata (Chamberlin), Paratachardina theae (Green), and two new species. Tachardina lobata Chamberlin (now Paratachardina lobata) is synonymized with Tachardia silvestri Mahdihassan (now Paratachardina silvestri), based on examination of type specimens. Paratachardina capsella Wang is transferred to Albotachardina Zhang as Albotachardina capsella (Wang) comb. nov. We provide a revised taxonomic key to the genera of the family Kerriidae and to all known species of the genus Paratachardina. All Paratachardina species are redescribed and illustrated with the exception of Paratachardina mithila. One of the new species described here is the polyphagous and pestiferous lobate lac scale, which damages trees and woody shrubs in Florida, U.S.A., the Bahamas and the territory of Christmas Island, Australia, and has been identified mistakenly as Paratachardina lobata (Chamberlin), an insect native to India and Sri Lanka. Here we recognize the lobate lac scale as a new species, name it Paratachardina pseudolobata sp. nov. and describe it based on all stages of the female (adult, second instar and first instar). In addition, a second new species, Paratachardina mahdihassani sp.nbsp;nov., is described based on adult females from India. (adapted from the article's abstract) (Kondo & Gullan. 2007. Zootaxa 1617: 1-41)

Host acceptance trials of parasitoids from Indian Paratachardina lobata (Hemiptera: Kerridae) on the invasive lobate lac scale in Florida
The invasive lobate lac scale identified as Paratachardina lobata* (Chamberlin) (Hemiptera: Keriidae) is a severe threat to native and economic plants in southern Florida. In an attempt to find appropriate control against the invasive scale, 3 parasitoid species associated with this species in its native southern India were tested in host acceptance trials in quarantine. Ooencyrtus kerriae Hayat (Encyrtidae) and Coccophagus parlobatae Hayat (Aphelinidae) drill their ovipositor through the rigid lac covering of the scale, whereas Aprostocetus bangaloricus Narendran (Eulophidae) oviposits into the anal pore of the scale. Despite this apparent oviposition behavior, their reproduction on lobate lac scale in these tests failed. Ooencyrtus kerriae and C. parlobatae yielded insignificant numbers of offspring and A. bangaloricus did not reproduce on lobate lac scale in Florida. To investigate the lack of offspring, scales were dissected 2 months after parasitoid oviposition. No parasitoid development to the larval stage was recorded in the scales, but round blood cell accumulations were found, which appeared to be encapsulations of parasitoid eggs. These findings indicate a strong immune response of the invasive scale to the tested parasitoids. The unsuitability of the invasive lac scale as a host for these parasitoids suggests that the invasive lobate lac scale and the Indian P. lobata differ physiologically. Additional surveys are needed to find a better matching form of the invasive lobate lac scale in order to obtain more suitable parasitoids for the control of this serious pest in Florida. (adapted from the article's abstract) (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]. It was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate native origin, so note, then, that references in the article to the species' native range may be in error.) (Sibylle Schroer and Robert W. Pemberton. 2007. Florida Entomologist 90 (3), 545-552.)

Biology and control of lobate lac scale insect View info about Adobe Acrobat PDF format
This report presents work on the bionomics and development of chemical and biological control of lobate lac scale Paratachardina lobata* (Chamberlin) and to develop chemical and biological control for it. This insect was found in Broward County in 1999, and has since become widely spread in southern Florida, and forty (40) species of trees and shrubs were previously identified as hosts. We have now identified it on more than 150 species of trees and shrubs in over 40 plant families. The scale insect attacks fruit trees, ornamental trees and shrubs of both exotic and native origin, and is found in urban and natural habitats. The effects of the scale on its hosts are 1) dieback of twigs and branches, 2) thinning of foliage due to weakening of the plant, 3) formation of sooty mold, and 4) in some species, death of the entire plant. (adapted from the introduction of the article) This 2003 report was written by F.W. Howard and C.M. Mannion and published by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. (*HEAR ed.: This species was formerly misidentified and widely referred to as Parachardina lobata [subsp. lobata]; it was later described from Florida populations as a new species, Parachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Hemiptera: Kerriidae), of indeterminate native origin.)


Bibliographies

Lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata): Wikipedia
Summary information and a good list of references are provided for lobate lac scale (Paratachardina pseudolobata) in Wikipedia (as of this writing).

Paratachardina pseudolobata references from GISD (ISSG)
References regarding Paratachardina pseudolobata as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


Experts

Paratachardina pseudolobata contacts from GISD (ISSG)
Contact information for experts on Paratachardina pseudolobata as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).


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